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This resulted in a lack of coordination between these armies, which caused a miscarriage of the plan, a forced halt in the German advance, and the subsequent withdrawal north of the Marne.

On the Allied side, the debacle of the Russian forces in East Prussia—a crushing defeat at the hands of General —was largely due to an almost total lack of signal communication.

This led to the development of extensive and complicated The onset of World War I found the opposing armies equipped to a varying degree with modern means of signal communication but with little appreciation of the enormous load that signal systems must carry to maintain control of the huge forces that were set in motion.

The organization and efficiency of the armies varied greatly.

from reconnaissance and other units in contact with the enemy and the means for exercising command by the transmission of orders and instructions of commanders to their subordinates.

As such, it comprises all means of transmitting messages, orders, and reports, both in the field and at sea and between headquarters and distant installations or ships.

As the war progressed there was a growing appreciation of the need for improved electrical communications of much greater capacity for the larger units and of the need within regiments for electrical communications, which had heretofore been regarded as unessential and impractical.

Thus, there grew an immense gridwork of deep buried cables, particularly on the German side and in the British sectors of the Allied side, with underground junction boxes and test points every few hundred yards.Immediately before and during the Civil War visual signaling also received added impetus through development of a system, applying the Morse code of dots and dashes, that spelled out messages with flags by day and lights or torches by night.Another development for light signaling placed a movable shutter, controlled by a key, in front of a strong light.Before the end of the 18th century European armies used the visual telegraph system devised by towers or poles with movable arms.The Prussian army in 1833 assigned such visual telegraph duties to engineer troops.Codes were developed in the 16th century that were based upon the number and position of signal flags or lights or on the number of cannon shots. In his successful demonstration of electric communication between Washington, D.