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Nicholas, attributed to Charles III, King of Naples, 1382.

Philippe de Mezières, chancellor of the King of Cyprus, drew up the statutes of an Order of the Passion of Christ (1360) the text of which has recently been published, but which were never enforced.

A regular order of knighthood means a brotherhood or confraternity which combines with the insignia of knighthood the privileges of monks.

This supposes recognition on the part of both Church and State; to belong to the regular clergy, they needed the pope's confirmation; they could not wear the sword of knighthood without the authorization of the prince.

Royalty afterwards utilized this new idea to strengthen its own position or to reward faithful nobles, creating secular orders of knighthood until there was no country without its royal or princely order.

Even private individuals entered into the business; adventurers attempted to exploit the vanity of the by sham insignia of knighthood with which they decked themselves, and which they distributed among their dupes lavishly — though not gratuitously.

Orders of knighthood lacking this official recognition should be expunged from history, even though they figure in the pages of all the old historians of the military orders.

Lazarus of Jerusalem and of the Holy Spirit of Montpellier.

Hence came a whole category of orders justly considered apocryphal.

In the seventeenth century Marino Caraccioli (1624), a Neapolitan nobleman, succeeded in passing himself off as Grand Master of the Order of Knights of St.

John of Jerusalem (Knights of Malta) and the Teutonic Knights (modelled on the former), both still in existence.

In the same category should be included the Order of Santiago which spread throughout Castile, Leon, and Portugal.